2001 ASSLH conference – Indian immigration to Canada: Some historical facts

Surjit Singh
Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur

Migration is not new to the human race. Individuals have always travelled the world driven by adventure, hope, desperation, searching for the ideal place to work and live [McNeill 1984]. International migration has been an integral and abiding part of human history and achievements, its alleged capacity to dislocate and change economic and social systems within a short period has only recently become an issue of major international concern [Appleyard 1991]. International migration patterns are not random, people follow old trails and build new networks [Massey et al 1993]. The historical links between old imperial countries and their ex-colonies significantly influenced migration flows [Huttenback 1976]. In this context, this paper attempts to analyze the Indian immigration pattern to Canada in the 20th century.

Immigration pattern

The initial history of Indian migration can be divided into three periods: [i] 1833-1908, from the abolition of slavery and the recruitment of unskilled labour under indenture to the consolidation of the laws regarding the migration of such labour; [ii] advent of a national policy, 1908-22, a period when indenture labour was stopped and the law of 1922 which removed many of the evils of coolieism and; [iii] from 1922 to the period after—an era of execution of a national policy in regard to emigration. In the first period, the emigrants were of two classes: [i] unskilled labourers under indenture or under special system of recruiting and [ii] skilled labourers and persons. These systems subjected emigrants to social and economy tyranny. The second period saw the new national policy which abolished indentured labour of emigrants. The Act of 1922, an important land mark, permitted organized immigration of unskilled labour to be controlled, or even suspended, by legislature and regulated the emigration of skilled labour and the conditions of employment. This exercised a liberalizing influence upon colonies requiring such labour.

In the early twentieth century most receiving countries either greatly restricted or completely excluded Asians and Indians, in particular. Canadian immigration policy primarily encouraged only selected types of immigrants to come ie, immigrants who will develop its vast agricultural resources and to keep Canada British in character and allegiance [Singh 1997]. Therefore, Whites from Europe, especially Britain were encouraged. Chinese and Japanese were also welcomed to a limited extent. In this backdrop of exclusion of Indians, there were very few Indians in Canada till the Second World War as seen from Table 1. A total of 6053 [0.14 percent all Canadian immigrants] Indians entered Canada. Of this total, 5179 Indians arrived during 1904-07. This was because of two factors: [i] job opportunities available in British Columbia as seen by a group of Indian Sikh soldiers in the Royal British Army and; [ii] an investigation by the Deputy Minister of Labour which revealed that most of the immigration had been induced by the activity of certain steamship companies and their agents [Misrow 1915], by the distribution of literature across the rural districts of North India, the base of these labourers. The perceived occupational opportunities in Canada by Indian immigrants at that time were not as numerous as was thought because although many immigrants were able to get jobs as labourers in agriculture, railway construction and in lumber, many others were apparently unable to find employment except in areas vacated by white Canadians during labour disputes. Most of these workers were induced by natives of India to come to Canada under actual or verbal agreements to work for hire [Smith 1920]. Many of these labourers greatly suffered because of local resistance, the severity of climate, and the unsuitability of the employment they were able to secure.

The disturbed labour situation of 1907, anti-oriental riots in Vancouver and mistrust of Asiatic labour because of their willingness to work for comparatively low wages [Muthana 1975] led to a series of discriminatory immigration Acts which curbed the inflow of Asians to Canada [Singh 1997]. These Acts of discrimination were extremely influential historical factors shaping the emergent structure of Indians’ identity, especially Sikhs. This period witnessed the two most powerful incidents—the Komagata Maru incident in 1914 and the martyrdom of Mewa Singh [Ferguson 1975]. These two incidents helped Indians to close ranks against the white hostile Canadian community and it created greater awareness of their cultural individuality; the Indian community chose to remain Punjabi then. Only one Indian immigrant entered Canada during 1914-19.

The period 1920-39 saw marginal improvement in Indian immigration; a total of 747 individuals entered Canada and in none of the years the number exceeded 100. The number fluctuated between 10 in 1920 and 80 in 1930. The World War II period saw very few immigrants; during 1940-46 only 17 persons came to Canada. After India became independent in 1947, immigration to Canada picked up and the period 1947-51 saw 419 Indians entering Canada. The major portion of these immigrants came from Britain. The period 1952-63 further observed an increase in Indian immigrants, 4452 persons immigrated. The period 1904-63 largely had immigrants who worked as labourers. They belonged to the agricultural class in India and therefore were suitable for the roughest and unskilled labour only. These men were largely illiterates, between one half and three-fifths could not read and write, and their percentage was higher than that of other races immigrating. Thus, the early immigrants did not occupy an important place in the labour supply, their efficiency was low, their employment irregular, their competitive ability small, and their industrial position insecure. They also had lower assimilative qualities than those of any other races1 During the early years of the 20th century, thus, three basic principles governed Canadian Immigration Policy: free enterprise, racism2 and cultural uniformitarianism [Jensen 1988]. The economic factor was the key one. The growing concentration of Indians in urban areas during the period of inflation and rising unemployment made them highly vulnerable to the scape-goating techniques of racists and ambitious politicians [Singh 1997]. It may be pointed out here that the labour market was hostile to Indians and the labour movement in Canada did nothing to protect the rights of these emigrants.

As the Canadian Immigration policy started opening up, an increased number started flowing in from India. During 1964-75, a total of 66465 Indians came to Canada and they constituted 3.31 percent of all Canadian immigrants. Another group of 69941 Indians entered Canada between 1976-86 and they formed 5.75 percent of all immigrants. With the introduction of a point-system in Canada in the mid-eighties, the inflow of Indian immigrants increased to Canada. The period 1987-95 saw 118403 Indians entering Canada. Since 1904, a total of 0.27 million Indian immigrants came to Canada, constituting 2.24 percent of all Canadian immigrants.

Table 2 reveals many distinct patterns of Indian immigration reflecting both the interests and the concerns of the potential immigrants and the host country’s desire to influence the social make-up of the nation. First, the period 1904-23, when adult males formed significant majority of Indian immigrants. Second, theperiod 1924-43, when adult females and children constituted the majority [almost 90 percent]. The majority of immigrants were families arriving in Canada to join their husbands and fathers. The increase in the number of dependents was apparently the result of the relaxation of immigration restrictions concerning Indians. However, economic sanctions still remained imposed on adult males, and family reunion was considered humane by the Canadian authorities provided any easing in restrictions did not put white Canadians in a position of competing for jobs with male immigrants. Third, the period 1944-53, when again adult males became prominent. After the World War II, economic opportunities began expanding for immigrating adult males. Fourth, the period 1954-92, though adult males formed a sizeable proportion of Indian immigrants, the adult females and children out-proportioned them. As expected the first few years of 20th century, immigration numbers show disproportionate number of adult males leaving India and emigrating to Canada. In other words, once the adult males establish themselves, they send for their families. A major policy change was effected from January 1, 1951, which guaranteed a quota for Indians, they being British subjects. With an agreement with the Government of India, 150 citizens of India were to be admitted to Canada each year in addition to the wife, husband and unmarried children under 21 years of age of Canadian citizens resident in Canada who were in a position to provide satisfactory settlement arrangements. Persons who were Canadian citizens could apply for their father if over 65 years of age and their mother if over 60 years of age. Again from January 1, 1957, the number of immigrants from India who could be admitted each year under the agreement was increased to 300. This led to a steady increase in number of Indians immigrating to Canada and leveling off of age and sex categories of immigration.

The above can be looked at from another angle. Table 3 shows that family class of Indian immigrants had predominated since 1983. In 1983, the family class immigrants constituted 93.22 percent of all Indian immigrants entering Canada while the independents (mainly males) were just 4.86 percent and the assisted relatives forming mere 1.41 percent. The percentage of family class immigrants, though declined over the period to 76.17 percent in 1992, has been very high. This period also observed an increase in proportion of assisted relatives when in 1992 they comprised one-tenth of all Indian immigrants. As regards the independent immigrants they after peaking in 1987 at 16.16 percent have seen a fluctuating trend in proportions and stood at 7.86 percent in 1992.

Age, sex and occupations of immigrants

We find that since 1956, Indian immigrants aged below 14 years constituted 18.5 percent which went up to 26.1 percent in 1965 to decline to 24.8 percent in 1975. Since then, the proportion has been below 10 percent (see Table 4). Data shows that all along the proportion of Indian immigrants in the age group of 20-59 years, has ranged between 59.4 percent in 1980 and 78.5 percent in 1960. The percentage of males has fluctuated between a low of 43.1 percent in 1975 and a high of 67.6 percent in 1960. This reveals that Indian immigrants, largely, have been males and aged between 20 and 59 years.

What has been the type of work force the Indian immigration comprising of is given below. The largest single group consists of non-workers; almost 65.0 percent of all immigrants during 1972-92 (see Table 5). The proportion of non- workers constituted 42.4 percent in 1956 and it peaked in 1975 at 74.5 percent. Since 1975, the percentage of non- workers has gone down continuously.

In 1956 40.7 percent immigrants were spouses and this proportion reduced to 25.0 percent in 1980 to peak at 53.6 percent in 1992. The period 1972-92, observed spouses to form 39.1 percent of all Indian Immigrants. It is interesting to observe that since 1980, children as an immigrant group has witnessed a near stagnation around 5.0 percent. These results show that dependent wives, destined brides or unmarried daughters of male immigrants form the adult female group of immigrants. This accords well with the pattern of adult males establishing themselves and then sending for brides from India; a common practice among the Indians. The post-1976 policy regime also influenced these latter trends. It also indicates that those Indian immigrants who entered Canada after 1976 had fewer children to sponsor; an indication of relatively young immigration cohort especially the independent class. Indian immigrants have apparently made the best use of family reunion and assisted relative clauses of Canadian immigration policies.

Over the period of time the skill intensity of Indian immigrants has changed; from unskilled to skilled and professionals. We notice that about 84 percent of Indians immigrants arrived during 1951-71 [Singh 1997]. Of the immigrants arriving prior to 1951, three-quarters were general labourers. Since 1951, this category has dropped off significantly which is attributed to more discriminating categories of occupations data collection and due to immigration policy favouring more highly trained immigrants. The dominating category among the immigrants entering the labour force during 1951-71 was the professional category, followed by workers in agriculture; manufacturing, mechanical and construction; and clerical; together these four categories accounted for 82 percent of East Indian immigrants. Further, the vast majority of the Indian immigrants who came in the first decade of the 20th century were Sikhs from rural Punjab and they worked chiefly on rail roads and in lumber mills. The rail road workers were widely dispersed in section gangs but the lumber mill workers were concentrated in cities.3 These men were paid low wages. At that time very few entrepreneurs were Indians.

Economic opportunities are the most important aspect of equal access for immigrants. Immigrants landing in Canada have the occupational intentions stated on their immigration applications. A more uniform statistic is provided by Immigration Statistics since 1973 and helps make comparison over time much simpler. In the period 1973-77, 8.7 percent of those admitted intended to pursue professional, managerial or technical occupations, 3.2 percent clerical occupations, 1.5 percent services, 4.2 percent farming, 5.6 percent miscellaneous occupations, and about 12 percent skilled, transportation, construction and commercial jobs (see Table 6). During the period 1978-80 the proportion of immigrants entering the labour force fell to 26.32 percent with 3.42 percent intending to pursue professional, managerial or technical occupations, 1.74 percent clerical occupations, 0.56 percent services, 1.9 percent planned a career in farming related jobs, 15.0 percent miscellaneous occupations, and 3.74 percent skilled, transportation, construction and commercial jobs.

The period 1981 to 1985 observed a rise in the proportion of immigrants planning to enter the labour force to 30.66 percent of those. Those admitted during this period, 69.34 percent were spouses, children, students and others. Among the labour force entrants, 3.33 percent intended to pursue professional, managerial or technical occupations, 1.05 percent clerical occupations, 0.72 percent services, 3.75 percent planned a career in farming related jobs, 18.8 percent miscellaneous occupations, and 3.08 percent skilled, transportation, construction and commercial jobs. About 40 percent during 1986-92 intended to enter the work force upon entering Canada; an increase of 8.95 percentage points over 1981-85 period’s proportion. During this period 3.26 percent of those admitted intended to pursue professional, managerial or technical occupations, 0.85 percent clerical occupations, 0.84 percent services, 4.90 percent planned a career in farming related jobs, 26.2 percent miscellaneous occupations, and 3.9 percent skilled, transportation, construction and commercial jobs.

For the period as a whole, 1973-92, 35 percent of those admitted intended to join the labour force with 4.83 percent intended to pursue professional, managerial or technical occupations, 1.65 percent clerical occupations, 0.84 percent services, 3.83 percent planned a career in farming related jobs, 17.57 percent miscellaneous occupations, and 6.56 percent skilled, transportation, construction and commercial jobs. Thus, the percentage of Indian immigrants entering the labour force is lower than during all the period than the percentage of Indian migrants coming to Canada as dependents. Besides, one finds professional, managerial, or technical occupational groups to stabilize around 3 plus percent, but decline over the 1973-77 period.

The post-1977 period witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion of those intending to pursue sundry occupations; immigrants with intentions to pursue skilled, transportation, construction and commercial jobs has gone down drastically. This apparently indicates a decline in skills of Indian immigrants in the post-1977 period and a relative fall in racism against Indians, as depicted by the ratio of elite to non-elite decline—the number of highly trained workers relative to the number of less highly trained workers. A priori one can say the benefit of post-1977 Indian immigrants to the Canadian economy has gone down and become less costly to India. These trends also hint at declining employment opportunities for most occupational skills, indicating that unemployment is high among Indo-Canadians.4

Hence, the occupational pattern of Indian immigrants to Canada is that of semi-skilled or unskilled general labourers during the early years. In this sense, the immigrants were in direct competition with white Canadians in lumber and mill work. This was responsible for stringent immigration regulations aimed at alleviating the hardships faced by unemployed white Canadians. When the tap-on policy was set in motion, there was a greater stress on more skilled occupations which attracted a high proportion of professional and related occupations. The immigration history of Indians, indeed, is a shift from general labourer to professional workers and a stagnation with declining skills.

Recent situation

The recent economic performance of Indian immigrants is examined for two reasons viz., one, that the performance of immigrants relative to their own expectations has an effect on the ease with which they integrate into Canadian society. If, after an appropriate adjustment period, immigrants do not do as well as their qualifications lead them to expect, they will become discontented. Second, there is a public perception. In this section, we attempt to look at the economic performance of Indian immigrants based on 1991 census data.

At the time of the 1991 census, there were 173675 people born in India residing in Canada; 4 percent of all Canadian immigrants. The large majority spoke at least one official language and most were urban dwellers. They were largely [76 percent] in the working age group of 25 to 64 years. In 1991, 26 percent of all immigrants from India aged 15 or over had a university degree, compared with 14 percent of all immigrants to Canada and 11 percent of all Canadian born adults. There are, however, some differences in the types of training acquired and those in other groups [see Table 7].

As regards the employment opportunities, Indian men are about as likely as all immigrants or Canadian born men in a position to be employed. In 1991, 79 percent of Indian men aged 15 to 64 were employed when 78 percent of all immigrant men were in employment and 76 percent of the Canadian born in the same age group. However, the intensity of employment among Indian women is relatively low; 57 percent aged 15 to 64 were employed, compared with 62 percent of all immigrant and 63 percent of Canadian women in this age group. When the employment figures are adjusted for age difference, the proportions largely remain the same.

As observed earlier, over time the miscellaneous occupations as intended occupation of Indian immigrants are on an increase. In 1991, Indian immigrant men were as likely to be self-employed as the Canadian born men; 12 percent of employed men in both groups were self-employed. However, Indian immigrant men were less likely than all immigrants with jobs to be self-employed, their proportion was 16 percent. A similar pattern is observed in Indian women when only 5 percent immigrant Indian women with jobs owned their business compared with 8 percent of all immigrant women and 6 percent of Canadian born women. This could be a cultural factor, women from east are generally tied to their families and family occupations as helpers in micro-enterprises. As with other women, those born in India are less likely than their male counterparts to be self-employed. Immigrants from India are about as liable as workers born in Canada to have full-time, full year jobs; Indian immigrants though are less likely than all immigrants with jobs to work full-time. In 1991, 60 percent of employed immigrant men from India worked full-time, full year as did 63 percent of all immigrant men and 59 percent Canadian men. Of women, 44 percent of Indian immigrant employed women worked in full-time, full year jobs compare with 50 percent of all immigrant women and 45 percent of Canadian-born women.

Indian Canadians are unemployed too. There is relatively high unemployment rate among Indians; 15.5 percent of all immigrant labour force participants from India were unemployed, compared with just over 10 percent of both all immigrants and the Canadian born in the labour force. The adjusted unemployment rate [for age] show an increase in unemployment rate to 17 percent which remains above the figures for both all immigrants and Canadian born labour force participants. Considering the proportion of young male immigrants from India, a very high percentage is unemployed; 19.6 percent of male Indian immigrant labour force participants from aged 15 to 24 were unemployed, compared with 16.3 percent of Canadian born males in this age group and 17.6 percent of all immigrant males aged 15 to 24. The unemployment rate among young Indian immigrant women exceeded that of their male counterparts. In 1991, 21.4 percent female labour force participants from India aged 15 to 24 were unemployed, compared with 16 percent of their counterparts among all immigrants and 14.3 percent of those born in Canada. This is really a sad story and as discussed earlier could be due to the declining skills and dominance of the family category in the post 1974 period.

Incomes of Indian immigrants are somewhat greater than those born in Canada. In 1990, an average income from all sources amounted to CD $25200 which was about the same for all immigrants, but CD $1500 greater than for those born in Canada [CD $23700]. This difference goes when incomes are adjusted for age. In fact the age adjusted average income of Indian immigrants is actually several hundred dollars below the figure for both all immigrants and Canadian born. Indian immigrant males have higher average incomes than their female counterparts. In actuality, the average income of immigrant men from India in 1990 at CD $31900 was about twice that of immigrants women from India [CD $17200]. One also encounters variation in the incomes of Indian immigrants in different age groups. In 1990, immigrants aged 15 to 64 born in India had an average income from all sources of CD $26300 compared with CD $14100 for those aged 65 and over. However, the average income of immigrants from India aged 15-64 is higher than that of the population born in Canada. These differences dissipate once age is taken care of. On the other hand, the average income of senior Indian immigrants in 1990 at CD $14100 was considerably below that of their counterparts among all immigrants who had CD $18600 income and the Canadian born population with CD $19500.

There are two other related aspects that must be examined here and they are income the Indian immigrants receive as transfer payments and the Indian population with low incomes. Over all Indian immigrants receive a smaller share of their income from transfer payments than those in other groups. In 1990, 9 percent of all income of Indian immigrants came from these sources compared with 12 percent of that of all immigrants and 11 percent that of the Canadian born population. As regards the seniors from India, they receive a much larger share of their income from government transfer payments than their counterparts under age 65. In 1990, 46 percent of all income of immigrants from India aged 65 and overcame from these programmes, compared with just 6 percent of that of those aged 15 to 64. The proportions of the incomes of immigrants from India aged both 15 to 64 and 65 and over, however, were about the same as those of their counterparts among all immigrants and the Canadian born. Among those aged 65 and over, 46 percent of the income of Indian immigrants came from these sources as did 46 percent of that of all Canadian-born seniors and 45 percent of that of all immigrant seniors.

As regards the population with low incomes, in 1990, 14 percent of Indian immigrants had low incomes below Statistics Canada’s low income cut offs compared with 15 percent of the Canadian born population and 19 percent of all immigrants. However, some of this difference reflects differences in age. When the differences in age are taken care of, the rate of low income among immigrants from India is actually slightly above that for the population born in Canada. It is still well below that for all immigrants. The intensity of low income is high among the senior and young Indian immigrants; these groups experience higher rates of low income than those in age groups between 25 to 64. In 1990, 17 percent Indian immigrants aged between 15 and 24 as well as 65 and over lived in a low income situation. This is higher than the proportion of those aged 25 to 64.

A recap

Canada’s immigration policies have been tap-on and tap-off variety. Indians in Canada had faced a worst racism till about the first half of 20th century, but things began to improve after the 1950s and more so in the post-1967 period. Among Indians, unemployment is on an increase and low income proportion is going up to. On the whole, the labour market performance of Indian immigrants is relatively comparable to the Canadian born population and all immigrants. The problems they face are more because of a fall in independent class immigrants and cultural fixation, most families do not have both members of the family working. Indian immigrants, especially the recent arrivals are experiencing higher unemployment and deterioration in economic status. Among Indians, this shift over time has been from unskilled labour to professional workers. They have smaller family sizes and live as a joint family which tides them over the hardships. In the end, Indians have accounted themselves well in Canadian society and their adaptation is much better than other groups. The dependence on the welfare system of Indians is increasing and there is no shame seen in seeking unemployment allowances. Income levels are bell shaped. This means that Indian families rely on the welfare system more significantly to supplement family incomes which in the past was thought not to be Indian.


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A White Man’s Country: An Exercise in Canadian Prejudice, Toronto: Doubleday Canada Ltd.
Huttenback, Robert A [1976] Racism and Empire: White Settlers and Colored Immigrants in the British Self-Governing Colonies, 1830- 1910, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
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The East Indians In Canada, Burnaby: Simon Fraser University.
Kumar, Prem [1996] “Lament of an Indo-Canadian” Hindustan Times, September 14: 6.
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Misrow, Jogesh C [1915] East Indian Immigration in the Pacific Coast, Stanford; California: R&E Research Associates.
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Singh, Surjit [1997] Immigration and the Canadian Economy, Ottawa: CIDA.
Smith, WG [1920] A Study in Canadian Immigration, Toronto: The Ryerson Press.
Statistics Canada [1932] Canada Year Book, 1932 and other years.
Statistics Canada [1996] Canada’s Immigrant Population: Focus on Canada, Cat.96-311E.


1 The strong influence of custom, caste and tabu, as well as their religion, dark skins, filthy appearance, dress and style of life stood in the way of association with other races, and it was evident from the attitude of others that they were not to be given an opportunity to assimilate [Ferguson 1975].
2 Racists and white only attitudes have not died out in Canada [Li 1979], they were more pronounced in the early years. However, many western Canadians continued to discriminate against Indians. British Columbia Premier Sir McBride in London Times said “To admit orientals in large numbers would mean in the end the extinction of the white people, and we always have in mind the necessity of keeping this white man’s country” quoted by Ferguson [1975: 10].
3 These workers drew ire of white working men. Labour relations in the lumber industry were notoriously brutal and labour leaders argued that lower paid Hindus were being used to replace white workers. Most didn’t speak English [Daniels 1994].
4 Decent jobs are rare in the three levels of government. The public sector seems determined in keeping the status quo. Situation in the private sector is worse. Professional jobs in banks, law and engineering firms, and in oil, gas, steel and pulp industries are not easily had for Indo-Canadians with excellent qualifications; and if employed, promotions are unthinkable. A glass ceiling separates them at the management level. It’s a common practice with employment agencies to screen the visible minority applicants [Kumar 1996: 6].


Table 1: Indian Immigrants in Canada [No.]

Period                  Immigrants                2 as %
                   Indian        Canada             of 3
1                   2                 3                    4
1904-07            5179          756779         0.6843
1908-13              117        1711773         0.0068
1914-19                  1          465516         0.0002
1920-39              747        1516264         0.0493
1940-46                17          143975         0.0118
1947-51              419          553061         0.0758
1952-63            4452        1619876         0.2748
1964-75          66465        2004653         3.3155
1976-86          69941        1216551         5.7491
1987-95        118403        1886308         6.2770
1904-95        265741      11874756         2.2379
Source:  Immigration Statistics


Table 2: Sex-wise Indian Immigration to Canada [Percent]

Period          Males   Females Children     Total
1904-08           99.5        0.3        0.2          5185
1909-13           83.8        5.4      10.0            111
1913-18         100.0                                           1
1919-23           58.3      26.2      15.5            195
1924-28           13.7      36.3      50.0            278
1929-33             8.6      26.8      64.6            280
1934-38             2.1      34.0      63.8              94
1939-43           10.0      40.0      50.0              20
1944-48           64.2      20.4      15.4            221
1949-53           55.4      26.4      20.2            559
1954-58           32.5      17.8      22.2          1105
1955-63           48.3      25.1      26.6          2790
1964-68           36.8      32.4      30.3        12760
1969-71           42.9      30.2      26.9        16369
1904-71           48.1      26.0      24.6        40465
1971-76           38.5      33.2      28.3        49310
1976-81           33.6      42.6      23.8        39866
1981-86           39.8      41.6      18.6        39543
1986-92           41.2      41.2      17.6        72007
Source:  Immigration Statistics


Table 3: Indian Immigrants to Canada by Class [percent]

Class                   1983     1985     1987     1990     1992
Total                  100.00  100.00  100.00  100.00  100.00
Family                 93.22    90.47    78.80    81.03    76.17
Refugees              0.11      0.22      0.24      0.55      4.45
Assisted Relatives1.41      1.59      3.34      8.20      9.98
Entrepreneurs      0.17      0.60      1.20      1.45      1.06
Self-employed      0.23      0.40      0.27      0.45      0.41
Investors                    –            –            –      0.19      0.08
Independents       4.86      6.73    16.16      8.13      7.86
Source: Calculated from Immigration Statistics


Table 4: Age and Sex of Immigrants: Indian [percent]

Year                            Age Groups                          % of
                 0-14    15-19    20-59    60-64       65+     Male in total
1956     18.48      9.09    70.91      0.61      0.91    65.15
1960     16.64      4.16    78.45      0.59      0.15    67.61
1965     26.06      4.82    67.25      0.85      1.03    56.36
1970     21.69      6.53    69.12      1.11      1.55    57.09
1975     24.75      8.97    59.50      3.44      3.44    43.11
1980       7.70    15.55    59.38      8.66      8.71    47.39
1985       6.95      7.35    68.87      6.48    10.35    46.92
1990       9.09      5.57    67.84      8.10      9.38    53.35
1991       8.20      6.46    72.32      5.56      7.46    49.88
1992       8.50      6.58    73.13      4.48      6.91    50.07
Source: Immigration Statistics


Table 5: Dependents of Indian Immigrants [percent]

Year        Spouse    Children    Others      Total            Total
Non wkrs    Wrkrs
1956         40.71       49.29         10.00      42.42         57.58
1960         34.77       49.61         15.63      38.04         61.69
1965         38.73       54.48           6.79       51.27        48.73
1970         36.63       44.17         19.20      54.74         45.26
1975          38.61      37.25          24.14      74.50        25.50
1980          25.03      18.22          56.75      73.04        26.96
1985          44.39        5.85          49.76      68.79        31.21
1990          37.53        5.67          56.80      57.44        42.56
1991          50.66        5.00          44.34      54.22        45.78
1992          53.61        4.44          41.95      52.77        47.23
1972-92     39.14      16.87          43.99      64.58        35.42
Source:  Same as table 2.


Table 6: Indian Immigrants to Canada by Intended Occupations

Occupations ……………………..1973-77   1978-80   1981-85   1986-90   1973-92
—————————————————————————————————————————– Grand Total…………………………44503      18110      32602      62315    157530
Total Percent………………………100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00
Entrepreneurs ……………………… 0.14         0.04         0.07         0.31         0.18
Investors…………………………….   0.03         0.01
Managerial, Administrative ……   1.00         0.57         0.61         1.10         0.91
Natural Science, Engineering,
Mathematics …….                       5.20         1.33         1.53         1.24         2.43
Social Sciences & Related ……. 0.28         0.15         0.10         0.11         0.16
Religion ………………………………. 0.06         0.12         0.15         0.16         0.12
Teaching …………………………..    0.97         0.51         0.46         0.32         0.55
Medicine & Health …………….     1.19         0.74         0.48         0.33         0.66
Artistic, Literary, Performing Art  0.18         0.18         0.08         0.13         0.14
Sports & Recreation……………….  0.02              –         0.01               –       0.001
Clerical & Related ………………     3.18         1.74         1.05         0.85         1.65
Sales……………………………………  1.50         0.54         0.43         0.65         0.83
Services……………………………….. 1.06         0.56         0.72         0.84         0.84
Farming, Horticultural                   3.15         1.88         3.75         4.90         3.82
Forestry & Logging ……………….   0.12         0.02               –       0.003         0.01
Mining & Quarrying                      0.13         0.03               –               –         0.04
Processing ………………………       2.20         0.38         0.35         0.23         0.83
Machining & Related…………….    4.12         0.73         0.64         0.48         1.57
Product Fabricating, Assbly & Rp 3.70         1.08         0.70         1.02         1.72
Construction Trades……………..     1.07         0.30         0.32         0.20         0.48
Transport Equipment Operating … 0.30         0.22         0.25         0.25         0.26
Material Handling & Related,         0.29         0.11         0.12         0.12         0.17
Other Crafts & Equipment ……….. 0.17         0.08         0.04         0.11         0.11
Occupations Nec ……………………..5.62       15.00       18.80       26.20       17.57
Total Workers ……………………….  35.57       26.32       30.66       39.61       35.09
Total Non workers ………………….. 64.43       73.68       69.34       60.39       64.91——————————————————————————————————————————

Source: same as table 4


Table 7: Economic Performance of Indian Immigrants

———————————————————————————————————————                                                                                       IMMIGRANTS      POPULATION

Items                                                           Indian       Total      Canadian     Total
                                                                                                  -Born            Canadian

Percent aged 15-64 Employed
Men…………………………………………………………….             79.1         77.8         76.0         76.2
Standardized for age ……………………………………..            76.9         75.5
Women ……………………………………………………….             58.8         62.0         62.9         62.6
Standardized for age ……………………………………..            58.5         62.1

Percent Self-employed
Men…………………………………………………………….              12.0         15.6         12.4         12.9
Women …………………………………………………………             5.3           7.7           5.8           6.1

Percent Employed Full Time-Full Year
Men…………………………………………………………….               60.2         62.9         58.7         59.4
Women ……………………………………………………….               43.9         49.6         45.2         46.0

Percent Unemployed……………………………………………..    15.5         10.2         10.1         10.2
Standardized for age ……………………………………..               17.0         10.8

Average Income [$]
Both Sexes ………………………………………………..                25174      25318      23749      24001
Standardized for age …………………………………..                23263      23904
Men………………………………………………………….               31923      32089      29837      30205
Standardized for age …………………………………..                 29153      29837
Women …………………………………………………….               17195      18266      17457      17577
Standardized for age …………………………………..                 16279      17647
Person aged 15-64 ……………………………………..                 26278      27010      24435      24841
Standardized for age …………………………………..                 24725      18608      19476      19236
People aged 65 & over ……………………………….                  14145      18608      19476      19236

Percent Income From Government [TP]………………….     8.5         11.6         11.4         11.4

Percent with Low Income………………………………………    14.4         19.4         14.8         16.8
Standardized for age ……………………………………..              17.3         24.4


Source: Statistics Canada [1996] India Profiles